By Roger Matthews, Peter Francis
A number of unique articles from a few of the world's top gurus on imprisonment. the purpose of the booklet is to check the present country of imprisonment around the globe and to examine attainable destiny advancements. The underlying topic of the booklet is that imprisonment is present process an important swap in a few varied international locations and that there are vital classes that are realized from the research of those alterations. whilst this ebook is perceived as a 'state of the artwork' assortment which gives an educated and finished research of the most important features of imprisonment. therefore the publication can be of curiosity to a wide-ranging foreign viewers of educational researchers and policy-makers in addition to students.
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Extra info for Prisons 2000: An International Perspective on the Current State and Future of Imprisonment
7 American advocates of prison expansion, however, also invoke common sense: How can crime not be saved if criminals are no longer running free in the community? Indeed, the special appeal of caging criminals over other correctional alternatives is the certainty of protection it ostensibly provides. Imprisonment 'controls rather than influences the behaviours of potential offenders', observe Zimring and Hawkins. 'The risk of a drug test or a large monetary fine may persuade some potential offenders to forgo criminal opportunities, but a functioning system of restraint provides assurance that potential offenders cannot commit crimes even if they want to' (Zimring and Hawkins, 1995: 157; emphasis in original).
As the cost of corrections escalates, the United States has ostensibly moved into a postwelfare state period in which pressures to limit taxes will be immense especially for politicians who campaigned against 'tax and spend liberals'. How will they be able to pay for rising prison expenditures in a time of shrinking governmental resources? One option is to cannibalize other state services. 4 billion) (1995: B1). But this strategy has limits: electoral constituencies, such as college students, will exert pressure if their interests are sufficiently violated.
Van Voorhis and J. L. Sundt 25 VARIATION IN THE SCALE OF IMPRISONMENT As noted above, the United States prison system cannot be reduced to a single 'American experience' without overlooking the diversity within the system. We do not have the space to sketch the full mosaic of American corrections, but two salient variations in imprisonment warrant attention. - so much so that Zimring and Hawkins (1991: 137) suggest that it might be more appropriate to speak of prisons in 'fifty-one different countries'.