By William E Lee, Michael I Ojovan, Carol M Jantzen
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Additional info for Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up: Processes, technologies and international experience
7) that would lead to permanent geological disposal of the UK’s wastes (DEFRA, 2008). 7 shows steps in the UK’s Managing Radioactive Waste Safely (MRWS) process. An invitation was sent out to communities in stage 1, inviting expressions of interest in hosting a repository or geological disposal facility (GDF). In stage 2, simple criteria were used to determine if the location was likely to be suitable. At this stage, areas were ruled out, for example, if they had mineral resources which might prove useful in future or aquifers.
Finally, weapons testing has left a legacy of contaminated sites worldwide. These include Semipalatinsk and West Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan), Novaya Zemlya (Russia), Lop Nor (China), Maralinga (Australia) and others in the Pacific islands, India, Pakistan and Korea. The first atmospheric tests were conducted at the Nevada test site (USA) in 1951. Following the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, atmospheric testing ceased, and nearly 90 percent of the US underground weapons tests were detonated in Nevada.
Some 244 research reactors are in operation or temporarily shut down across 56 countries, while a further 424 reactors have been shut down or decommissioned, and five are planned or under construction. Many of the research reactors that have been shut down, but not decommissioned, have spent HEU fuel on-site. Threat reduction programmes aimed at reducing the amount of HEU at civilian facilities have been in place since 1978, when the USA initiated the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme.