By C. O. Frederick (auth.), J. J. Kalker, D. F. Cannon, O. Orringer (eds.)
In April 1990 a convention used to be held on the Cracow Institute of know-how, Cracow, Poland. The identify of that convention was once "Residual Stresses in Rails - results on Rail Integrity and Railroad Economics" and its issues have been the size and prediction of residual stresses in rails, yet, because the sub-title indicates, the goal was once additionally to supply a hyperlink among examine and its program to the sensible railway international. on the Cracow convention there have been forty individuals with five railways and five rail makers being represented and 25 papers got. The Cracow convention used to be a hit, and via March 1991 its off-spring, "The overseas convention on Rail caliber and upkeep for contemporary Railway Operations", was once conceived and start was once finally given in June 1992 on the Technical collage, Delft. It grew to become out to be a few child, with 112 delegates from 24 nations collaborating! As with its predecessor, the convention used to be to supply a discussion board for the trade of rules among learn investigators, rail makers and railway engineers. A cursory exam of the record of members means that approximately fifty seven% have been from the railway undefined, 34% from universities and different study associations and nine% from the metal undefined. taking into consideration that many of the railway individuals have been from their respective learn and improvement businesses the stability of pursuits was once approximately right.
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Additional info for Rail Quality and Maintenance for Modern Railway Operation: International Conference on Rail Quality and Maintenance for Modern Railway Operation Delft June 1992
There appears to be a strong correlation between increasing wheel load and deeper corrugation depth. As plastic flow is a necessary condition for corrugation formation, increasing the rail's yield strength can limit corrugation formation . WEAR Wear remains the major cause for rail removal . In the recent past, attempts to limit wear, especially in curves of 2° or greater, were made by employing high-strength rail steels. The use of these heat-treated or alloy steels at least tripled rail life.
Devanathan and Clayton (26) examined the behavior of two low carbon bainitic steels. One, D l, was taken from an experimental cast frog while the other (D2) was asrolled, Table 1. These steels were tested with a slide/roll ratio of 35 % and contact 44 pressure in excess of 500 MPa to generate type III wear. 04%C steel (D1) was also tested in two heat treated conditions. The material was austenitized at 1025°C and cooled at 2 and 6OO°C/second to generate hardness values of 267 and 317 HB, respectively.
Naylor et al (33) found that the prior austenite grain size controlled packet size and this could be an influential crack growth barrier. It is not easy to detect the prior austenite grain boundaries in many of the bainitic steels. tm. tm for Callendar's steels, CI-C4. tm for standard section rail of two decades ago. However, while grain size is undoubtedly a factor (34), the data of Table II suggest that it is unlikely to be the only explanation for the high impact resistance of B7. On the other hand a bainitic wheel steel without Ni (29), F in Table I, exhibited poor impact properties.