By Simon I. Singer
Recriminalizing Delinquency provides a case research of laws that redefines past acts of delinquency as crimes, and delinquents as juvenile offenders. It examines one state's reaction to violent juvenile crime via waiver laws that transfers jurisdiction over juveniles from juvenile court docket to felony courtroom. It makes a speciality of the production, implementation, and results of waiver laws that reduced the eligible age of legal accountability to 13 for homicide and fourteen for different violent offenses.
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Additional info for Recriminalizing Delinquency: Violent Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice Reform
Few inmates were spared "the whip, the ball and chain, or solitary confinement" (Rothman 1971: 231). The House of Refuge's Assistant Superintendent, DeVoe, described how physical punishment became a routine part of maintaining control: Corporal punishments are usually inflicted with the Cat or a rattan. The latter instrument is applied in a great variety of places - such as the palm and back of the hands, top and bottom of the feet - and lastly, but not rarely nor sparingly, to the posteriors over the clothes, and also on the naked skin.
They serve other purposes besides that which goes into the prevention and control of crime. Emile Durkheim (1933 ) made this point long ago when he suggested that crime and punishment was a normal and necessary part of every society. Crime and punishment not only remind members of society of what are unacceptable forms of conduct, but they also help to maintain the cohesiveness of society. The public's inability to see Bosket punished for the subway murders added little to its confidence in the legal rules of society.
There was a broad array of penalties that appeared to rely mainly on monetary fines. However, if the offender was TAKING STOCK OF JUVENILE JUSTICE REFORMS 27 unable to pay, officials could resort to physical punishment. According to David Rothman, the statutes fixing a penalty of a fine often provided that persons unable to pay the costs were to be whipped. Where one punishment was inappropriate, magistrates had recourse to the other. No clear division by type of offense distinguished those who received a fine from those who received a whipping.