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Phosphors used in fluorescent lamps must satisfy requirements for structural and chemical stability under UV radiation and in the environment of mercury and plasma discharge. They should also exhibit high quantum efficiency (typically, 2+ >85%). Calcium halophosphate phosphor, c ~ ~ ( P o ~ ) ~ ( c I , F ) : ( Mn s ~ ~ +),, became widely used soon after the appearance of the fluorescent lamp. The antimony ion act both as sensitizer and activator. It absorbs the UV radiation and emits a broad 2 t .
The potential curve T is the same diagram but with one of the carriers, say electron, captured. The transition from state C to state T can occur in the vicinity of the intersection of the potential curves. This means that before the capture, the empty center must have some vibrational energy, W e ,acquired from phonons, and after the capture, the center experiences the transition into a highly excited vibrational state that relaxes by multiple phonon emission. , transition from the state T to the final state V).
The lead wires are composed of the inner iron-nickel alloy wire. Dumet wire is used for seals, and the outer part is made from copper or copper-plated iron. ) The inside wall of the tube is coated with a layer that has to protect the phosphor from the sodium in the glass and to reflect UV (different precoatings are being used). 8 Pa (4 to 6 x 1 0 - ~tom) at the operating temperature. To reduce the diffusion of electrons and ions toward the wall, the tube is filled with an inert gas at some optimum pressure (high pressure reduces the electron temperature).