By Manuela Escarameia
This accomplished handbook offers large info at the different types of revetment on hand and gives information at the selection and layout of those platforms. with reference to usual and synthetic watercourses info is integrated on revetments that include a few kind of structural defense and revetments which mix this safeguard with plants to extend the environmental caliber of the platforms. large use of images, flowcharts and diagrams permit the engineer to settle on the main applicable kind of revetment and the main low-priced layout.
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Additional info for River and Channel Revetments: A Design Manual
1995), Maynord (1993), US Army Corps of Engineers (1981). Design equations 1. Escarameia and May (1992) Ð HR Wallingford Recommended for design of riprap, loose or interlocking concrete blocks and gabion mattresses Dn50 C U2b 2g s À 1 2:17 where Dn50 is the characteristic size of stone Dn50 is the size of the equivalent cube (= (W50/s)1/3) W50 is weight of particle, s is density of stone C is a coefficient that takes account of the turbulence intensity TI. 6. TI is defined as (rms u)/" u, where rms stands for `root mean square', u is the streamline velocity component and u" is the time-averaged velocity also in the streamwise direction, both measured at a point 10% of the flow depth above the bed.
This equation was specifically developed for riprap following extensive laboratory studies carried out in small- and full-scale conditions. It should be noted, however, that the failure criterion behind this equation is different from that of the other equations. Instead of using the threshold of movement, the criterion adopted by Maynord was that the underlying material should not be exposed to the hydraulic load. This was intended to account for the thickness of the riprap and for segregation during placing, but it means that the design formula will incorporate a smaller margin of safety against failure than the previous ones.
The present section gives a brief description of boatgenerated currents. Two different types of current are produced by ship movement: > > Return currents Ð these are parallel to the channel banks (assuming that the boat is not sailing eccentrically) but of opposite direction to the vessel motion Propulsion-induced currents (or screw-race) Ð these are high velocity jets generated by the ship's propeller and can have various orientations from parallel to normal in relation to the waterway boundaries.