By Myles McDonnell
Contemporary reports of old Roman masculinities have focused on the personal facets of the topic, fairly sexuality, and feature drawn conclusions from a slender box of reference, frequently rhetorical perform. by contrast, this booklet examines the general public and crucial element of Roman masculinity: Manliness as represented by way of the concept that of "virtus". utilizing conventional old, philological, and archaeological research, mixed with socio-linguistics and gender experiences, it provides a entire photo of the way Roman manliness built from the center to the past due Republic interval.
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Additional resources for Roman Manliness: Virtus and the Roman Republic
Similar views were expressed by V. Poschl, Grundwerte romischer Staatsgesinnung in den Geschichtswerken des Sal/ust (Berlin, 1940) pp. 12-26; cf. M. Pohlenz, Die Stoa (Gottingen, 1948-9) n, p. 134 fr. For a caustic evaluation of the whole approach, see A. Momigliano, Alien Wisdom (Cambridge, 1975) p. 16. 4 INTRODUCTION - MANLINESS AND VIRTUS The central ideals of a society are, however, seldom entirely static. Speaking at a time of civil war, when he was rallying forces to defend traditional senatorial government against generals who challenged it, Cicero in the Philippics strove to present virtus as both traditional and unaltered.
Earl, Historia II (1962) p. 476 and Eisenhut, VR, p. 30, commented on the "un-Romanness" of the lines. 16 For 6:pETT] as an ethical concept, see U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Sappho und Simonides, Untersuchungen uber griechische Lyriker (Berlin, 1913) pp. 169-89; and A. W H. Adkins, Merit and Responsibility (Oxford, 1960). 6 INTRODUCTION - MANLINESS AND VIRTUS this idea had become proverbial. I7 Ennius' lines, however, which were recited before a Roman audience, draw a clear contrast between ius, an overtly ethical quality, and virtus, and stand in stark contradiction to the theory that virtus was conceived of as an ethical ideal representing the sum of the qualities valued by Romans.
P. 563. On this provision, see Mommsen, R. Staatsr. P p. 426, n. 2. 13 ROMAN MANLINESS For they themselves went down to the CIrcus during the games to compete and they sent their slaves and horses. " No one has doubted that in the law, what is said to be obtained 'by means of chattel,' slaves or horses had won. Plin. NH 21. "5 The reading virtutis suae, which is that of most editions of Pliny, is, however, found only in one manuscript; all others have virtutisve suae. The preferred reading, therefore, should probably be: qui coronam parit ipse pecuniave eius virtutisve suae ergo duitur ei, - "who obtains a crown by himself or by means of his chattel, or it is conferred on him because of his virtus, 6 with a distinction between the first clause, which refers to a crown being won by a man or by his chattel in games, and contains no reference to virtus, and the second, which refers to a crown conferred on the man for his own virtus.