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Extra resources for Ryle
Then, for Professor Ryle's methods. " Yet what he says in explanation of this term will hardly suffice to show that there is here a single clear type of mistake at all. If there is, it is something so very general as misunderstanding the ways in which words are intended to be, and normally are, used, and so wrongly inferring that they can be made to behave like other, very different, words, and that what they "stand for" (dangerous phrase) is "like" what those other words stand for. But this, broad as it is, is not the only basis of Descartes' myth; nor is it a mistake peculiar to him-it lies behind other, quite different, theories of the mind also.
3. What do our principal mental concepts stand for? This is the fatal question in terms of which much of the argument proceeds; take any psychological verb, and ask whether it "stands for," "names," "denotes," 44signi_ fies," or 44designates," either an occurrence· (episode) or a disposition, two processes or one process, a relation 4such transitive verbs do not signify relations" p. 209), a thing 4the phrase 4my twinge' does not stand for any sort of thing or 4term,'" p. 209) C'the objects proper to such verbs are things and episodes"), a performance or a manner of performance.
3 We peer at people and wonder what is going on "inside" them occultly, the wonder having point and significance just because there is always a possibility of disclosure and therefore always a possibility of non-disc1osur¥ or lies. It is this puzzlement, peculiar to the description of the states and activities of human minds, which is paradoxically omitted in Professor Ryle's polemic. His counter-theory leads him to say, what is certainly false (p. "* In fact, very many, perhaps the majority of novelists and diarists, and some biographers, find comedy or tragedy precisely in the contrast between the narrative description which an observer reasonably gives of a person's life, with no data other than his own and other people's observations, and the missing confession 9r avowal which the person himself, if suitably gifted, may supply; and some novelists, and even more diarists, have been exclusively concerned with the provision of the missing data, that is, with that uncommon kind of autobiographical description which, in a universal and natural metaphor, is called the description of inner life.