By Bohdan Krawchenko
The 1st social heritage of contemporary Ukraine in English. This e-book examines the results of social and political switch in twentieth-century Ukraine at the nationwide realization of staff, peasants, the intelligentsia, and the political elite. The presentation starts off with society at the eve of the 1917 revolution and ends with postwar improvement within the early Nineteen Seventies.
Co-published with the Macmillan Press.
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Extra resources for Social Change and National Consciousness in Twentieth-Century Ukraine
After the upheavals of the mid-seventeenth century, Western Europe was starved for Ukrainian raw materials and the Ukrainian market was starved for West European goods. As long as the towns remained autonomous they could set prices and regulate commerce and entry into guilds. By keeping out outside competitors, they preserved their Ukrainian majorities. Serfdom, with its conditions limiting the free geographical and economic movement of peasants, had not yet been introduced, and the towns contained many peasants, partly engaged in agriculture, partly as artisans.
92 All school activity, including explanations, had to be carried out in Russian. The 1804 law actually permitted the teaching of the non-Russian languages of the Empire. Ukrainian, however, was not considered a language but 'a dialect, or half a dialect, or a mode of speech of the all-Russian language, in one word a patois, and being such, does not have the right to an independent existence . . in schools. ' 93 The school curriculum had no Ukrainian content: Ukrainian history, literature, culture were not taught and subjects such as geography and the natural sciences made only passing reference to 'Little Russia'.
Like the nouveaux riches who ape the manners of established families, the insecure Cossack starshyna took to aristocratic culture, first the Polish, then the Russian. They changed their names: the plebeian Vasylenko became the noble-sounding Bazilevskii; Rozum, Razumovskii. It would not do to beat the corridors of heraldic offices without French wigs, German waistcoats, and certainly correct Russian. Above all, the moujik's language was not be spoken, much less written. The greater the cultural distance from the peasantry, the more convincing the argument for nobility status could be made.