By Jimmy Alexander Faria Albanese, M. Pilar Ruiz
This identify features a variety of Open entry chapters.
The twenty-first century global faces numerous huge, immense demanding situations: the best way to mitigate weather swap, meet a growing to be strength call for with out hoping on fossil fuels, and deal with the escalating amounts of strong waste generated through towns around the globe. This compendium quantity bargains a manageable way to all 3: utilizing reliable waste as a renewable resource.
Intended for a large viewers starting from engineers and lecturers to decision-makers in either the private and non-private sectors, this quantity has collected jointly learn right into a variety of applied sciences and methodologies. The editors, well-published researchers on the most sensible in their box, have chosen articles that lay the basis for this dialogue. they've got then incorporated chapters for the next waste administration situations: anaerobic digestion, composting, pyrolysis and chemical upgrading, incineration and carbonization, and gasification.
Research has been integrated from worldwide, representing strength foreign strategies to what are worldwide demanding situations, in addition to the most important implications for ongoing study during this very important box of study.
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Extra resources for Solid Waste as a Renewable Resource: Methodologies
2016 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. 23 24 Solid Waste as a Renewable Resource: Methodologies FIGURE 7: Total ELP of scenarios 1, 2, and 3 in India, Indonesia, and China. © 2016 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. 1 INDIA The environmental load of the ‘energy depletion’ impact category in the Indian case study is lowest in scenario 1, second lowest in scenario 3, and highest in scenario 2. This is because electricity replaced by energy recovered in the incineration plant significantly reduced the consumption of coal and natural gas in the fossil-based fuel thermal power plant.
2 Mt by 2020 . A common practice of HFW management is landfill disposal, which is causing severe environmental problems (such as greenhouse gas emissions) and shortage of disposal places [6,12,13]. Other practices are utilization as animal feed (which can raise hygiene issues) and soil conditioners-fertilizers (which can cause severe pollution to surface and underground water) [6,12,14]. Alternatively HFW can be used for the production of bio-based (green) chemicals and bio-energy (for example, biogas and ethanol) [15,16].
As can been evidenced from Figure 1, HFW was fully liquified after 8 hours of enzymatic treatment. 5 Pa · s, respectively. 32 g/L · h (35% w/v DM) © 2016 by Apple Academic Press, Inc. 85 g/L · h (45% w/v DM) (Table 2). 27% of the initial cellulose content in raw material. 423 g/g at 35% and 45% w/v DM respectively. The highest ethanol yield obtained when the fermentation was performed at 35% w/v DM could be attributed to the better mixing conditions. TABLE 2: Results of ethanol production during cultivation of S.