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Normal joint ROM varies among persons based on age and sex. 85 Children also have a greater inversion and dorsiflexion of the foot and ankle than adults. 49,57,67 Spasticity Spasticity refers to an abnormal increase in muscle tone (excessive muscle tension) that interferes with muscle 28 SECTION I Disciplines 180° 180° 180° 90° 90° A 0° 90° B C 0° 0° FIGURE 3-3 Total shoulder motion is a combination of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral movement. Stabilizing the scapula (A) allows the examiner to assess glenohumeral motion (B).
These conditions are also associated with a high incidence of abnormalities in the newborn. • Did the mother have genital herpes or herpes simplex? • Did the mother ingest any toxic substances or take any medications that could harm the fetus? Specifically, is there a history of illicit drug use or alcohol abuse during the pregnancy? • Did the mother suffer any accidents in which the abdominal wall was struck or in which there was excessive blood loss with critical lowering of her blood pressure?
Recognizing Deformities The examiner should look for signs of musculoskeletal deformity, determine what type of deformity exists, and ascertain its exact location. If deformities exist, specific tests can help reveal them. Answers to the following questions will help accomplish this goal: • Is the deformity in the bones, the joints, or the soft tissues? • How severe is the deformity? • Is the deformity fixed, or can it be passively or actively corrected? • What factors are causing the deformity?